Nice video however there’s one correction, the spread of the trade Malay language happened prior to the Malacca Sultanate. It began during Srivijaya, the genesis of the word Melayu. Court Malay language expanded from Sumatra to the rest of the archipelago and eventually split into many dialects and creoles. Somewhere during the 15th century this shared linguistic continuum allowed for the genesis of the Baazar Malay, the trade language for the archipelago.
不错的视频，但有一个更正，马来语贸易的传播发生在马六甲苏丹国之前。它始于三佛齐时期，即马来语（Melayu）一词的起源。宫廷马来语从苏门答腊岛扩展到群岛其他地区，并最终分裂成许多方言和克里奥尔语。在 15 世纪的某个时候，这种共享的语言连续体促成了巴扎马来语（该群岛的贸易语言）的起源。
This is a good video, but a couple things that maybe you missed.
1. The Melayu/Malay language was not just a Lingu Franca because of the Mallaca Sultanate but, because of the Srivijaya empire somewhere in the 800s AD.
2. It was not just used as a lingua Franca by Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore but historically also by the Philippines, the Cham people, and Timor Leste.
3. Malay is also an ethnicity that is separated by 4 countries that being Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapura, and Brunei.
1. 马来语/马来语不仅仅是因为马六甲苏丹国而成为通用语，而且因为公元 800 年代的三佛齐帝国。
There is something you did not mention which I think is an important part of this story:
The Youth Pledge of 1928 said basically: one nation, one people, one language: Indonesian. It was the spiritual birth of Indonesia but for a time nothing happened. People continued speaking their regional languages and the highly educated spoke Dutch.
However, there was one man who thought to himself: we will be patient and the time will come. While waiting for that time or opportunity, he read every book on linguistics that he could lay his hands on for at that time you could not study linguistics in Indonesia. Only law, engineering and medicine were available.
The time he was waiting for came when the Japanese invaded in 1942. They forbade the use of Dutch but barely anyone could speak Japanese so they were forced to turn to Malay which had been the linggua franca in Indonesia from already long before the Dutch arrived.
The man worked for the language office where he was the expert staff and driving force. The understanding with the Japanese was that the use of Malay would be temporary. Eventually, Indonesians would be taught Japanese.
However this was not the secret plan at the Language Office. They deliberately planned and prepared the national language for a free and independent Indonesia.
The man who became the head of the Language Office, began by writing the first book of grammar from an Indonesian perspective. He then formed a team to create a dictionary of new terminology for at that time Malay had the vocabulary of a 17th century language. He deliberately chose loan words from Latin, English and Dutch where needed because he said that if we were to become a modern state we would need the science and technology from the West. Within 3 years he had succeeded in modernizing the Malay language so that when we declared independence in 1945 we had a national language ready to unite the nation and communicate the 20th century to us. This man was known as the father of the modern Indonesian language and his name was Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana.
Indonesia is one of the few countries in the world which deliberately engineered its own national language and culture. Compare this to Timor Leste which declared Tetun its national language and Portuguese its official language. To this day they have not managed to modernize Tetun and Portuguese has taken over. So, Indonesian as our national language did not happen by magic or because of the Dutch. It is because we Indonesians deliberately chose it and then took the steps to make it possible for Indonesian to become our national language. Also, we created 100s of thousands of schools where it was taught and we have nearly completely eradicated illiteracy. The Dutch created very, very few schools with 90% of the population illiterate when they left and even in the few schools they established the language of instruction was usually Dutch or the regional language where the school was located.
If this interests you, read Defeat and Victory a novel by Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana which was translated into Japanese, English and German. The English version is available as an ebook from Kompas/Gramedia.
他等待的时间到了 1942 年日本入侵的时候。他们禁止使用荷兰语，但几乎没有人会说日语，所以他们被迫转向马来语，马来语早在荷兰人到来之前就已经是印度尼西亚的通用语言。
这位成为语言办公室主任的人开始从印度尼西亚语的角度撰写第一本语法书。然后，他组建了一个团队，为当时马来语拥有 17 世纪语言的词汇创建了一本新术语词典。他故意在需要的地方使用拉丁语、英语和荷兰语的借用词，因为他说，如果我们要成为一个现代国家，我们就需要来自西方的科学技术。三年之内，他成功地实现了马来语的现代化，因此，当我们在 1945 年宣布独立时，我们有了一种民族语言，可以团结国家并向我们传达 20 世纪的信息。这个人被称为现代印度尼西亚语之父，他的名字叫Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana。
As a Dutch person who’s fascinated by colonial histories of the world, I’ve wondered this too. I’m actually really happy we didn’t force them to learn Dutch though. When a colonial power makes its subjects learn their language, the native languages are usually very influenced by it and in many cases they even die out. Indonesia has such diversity, it would be an immense shame if the amazing local languages disappeared. So I’m happy a modified local language became the national language of Indonesia
as Indonesian i am sure we inherited the law from Dutch…. one of the “complete” law created in history and still most of them today still practiced in Indonesia.
anyway, its also fact that our legislative is too lazy to change it and only make a minor adjustment lol.
Actually, after the Japanese left in 1945 and the Dutch came back, They tried to force the Indonesian to speak and use Dutch as the official language. Unfortunately, it’s too late because The Indonesian Language had more spreaded and developed through the archipelago during Japanese occupation. I’ve read some article mentioned that Dutch was really regret for not teach their language to the inlanders earlier back then. Also during that time, The Indonesian standardized their language from Malay, added some word from locals, dutch, arabs, chinese, etc. and created a new standard dialect.
The Founding Fathers (They did come from many areas and regions) are amazing. I am a Chinese descendant born in Indonesia and I love and am proud of my birth country, consider myself as Indonesian. Since the early age of education we take pledge of allegiance to have one motherland, language and nation – Indonesia every Monday in weekly ceremonies, we also recite the declaration of independence, sing national spirit songs. I do expect today and the future generations will do the same, vowing the love of their home and land.
What they did also was to introduce the Latin Alphabet for the Malay Language, but with Dutch spelling conventions (For example an “u” sound would be written as “oe” and so on)
When Indonesia took its independence, they reformed the spelling, and today’s Indonesian is virtually exactly phonetic. So as long as you know a few simple rules, if you can read it you can say it correctly.
In the last 70 or so year Indonesian has drifted away a bit from Malay though…. people from Malaysia and Indonesia can still understand each other, but use different expressions for quite a few things. And each finds the other’s way of talking a bit comical.
在过去 70 年左右的时间里，印度尼西亚语已经与马来语渐行渐远……来自马来西亚和印度尼西亚的人们仍然可以互相理解，但在很多事情上使用不同的表达方式。每个人都觉得对方的说话方式有点滑稽。
As a Filipino, this is really interesting. We’re just above ID, also speaking a native Austronesian language, also colonized for three centuries, and also a nation broken up into many islands and many languages. But the key difference is our colonizers. The things that the expert said–like the main ideas from the wealthy class being written in the elite language of the colonizer and therefore not reaching the masses enough–it’s all true. It’s exactly what happened. Even long after the Spanish rule had ended, up to the Gen-X generation, they were REQUIRED to learn Espanol. My mom spoke it, my father in law does too. And it only ended because our government wanted to prioritize English education to make it co-official with Filipino to anticipate the global economy. And Filipino with a Tagalog base doesn’t take well, the same reason Javanese wouldn’t work as an Indonesian national language–because the other regions wouldn’t accept it.
作为一个菲律宾人，这真的很有趣。我们就在ID上方，同样讲的是南岛语，同样被殖民了三个世纪，而且也是一个分裂成许多岛屿和多种语言的国家。但关键的区别在于我们的殖民者。专家所说的事情——比如富裕阶层的主要思想是用殖民者的精英语言写成的，因此没有足够地传播到大众——这都是真的。这正是发生的事情。即使在西班牙统治结束很久之后，直到 X 世代，他们都被要求学习西班牙语。我妈妈这么说，我岳父也这么说。它之所以结束只是因为我们的政府希望优先考虑英语教育，使其与菲律宾语共同预测全球经济。以他加禄语为基础的菲律宾语不太受欢迎，就像爪哇语不能作为印度尼西亚的国家语言一样——因为其他地区不会接受它。
In contrast to British colonialism, the Netherlands only made its colonial countries a country to be exploited, whether natural resources or human resources. The Dutch government did not provide proper education for natives except for a small number of local tyrants. In fact, this caused criticism from Dutch intellectuals so that the Dutch government was forced to roll out a politics of return around the 19th century.
Fun fact : Indonesia has more than 700 living languages that are spoken in Indonesia. This figure indicates that Indonesia has about 10% of the world’s languages and indonesian students have to learn 3 languages bahasa indonesia, english and their local language, making them the largest bilingual country in the world, with approximately 200 million people speak more than one language.
有趣的事实：印度尼西亚有超过 700 种现用语言。这个数字表明，印度尼西亚拥有世界上大约10%的语言，印度尼西亚学生必须学习印尼语、英语和当地语言3种语言，使印度尼西亚成为世界上最大的双语国家，大约有2亿人说不止一种语言。
I’ve been with a mixed group of Europeans and Americans in Indonesia, and we spoke Indonesian with each other. (This is in 1992) This is because its a great language, easy to learn, perfect to communicate. so it doesn’t surprise me a Dutch official who can speak it, prefers to use it.
我在印度尼西亚和一群欧洲人和美国人在一起，我们互相说印度尼西亚语。 （这是 1992 年）这是因为它是一种很棒的语言，易于学习，非常适合交流。因此，对于一位会说该语言的荷兰官员更喜欢使用该语言，我并不感到惊讶。
My late Grandma can speak dutch. She’s from New Guinea(Papua). During the colonization,she worked as a nurse in Sentani(Jayapura). She didn’t attend any school. Only her and her colleagues (other inland) at that time that can speak dutch. She quits her job when Indonesia gains its independence. She still works as a nurse in a local hospital up until the late 70’s. She died in year 2000. Although my grandma knows well dutch, she didn’t teaches her kids(my mom) to use the language for some reason.
我已故的祖母会说荷兰语。她来自新几内亚（巴布亚）。殖民期间，她在森塔尼（查亚普拉）当护士。她没有上过任何学校。当时只有她和她的同事（其他内陆地区）会说荷兰语。印度尼西亚获得独立后，她辞去了工作。直到七十年代末，她仍在当地一家医院担任护士。她于 2000 年去世。虽然我的奶奶精通荷兰语，但出于某种原因，她没有教她的孩子（我的妈妈）使用该语言。
My grandpa once told me that they spoke Dutch at school, but prohibited of using it at home by his parents. Instead they spoke Javanese and Malay on daily basis. Dutch was just a tool to get a better education, but never as a national pride.
As an Indonesian-Dutch Youtuber I have to say: well done especially with doing the research and incorporating Kartini! A little correction for 5:44, standardized Indonesian is based on the literal Riau Malay, not from Malacca.
Funnily enough, Indonesians always tell me ‘no Indonesians really speak (formal) Indonesian, we only speak informal’, which in a sense is true, nobody speaks like a book. Spoken Indonesian is very much influenced by Jakartan Indonesian and that’s how it differs from spoken Malay.
(And on its turn Jakartan Indonesian is derived from Betawi Malay, a creole language for the Betawi ethnic group whose ancestors used Malay as a lingua franca because they originated from different ethnicities)
作为一名印尼裔荷兰 Youtuber，我不得不说：做得很好，尤其是在进行研究和整合 Kartini 方面！对 5:44 进行一点更正，标准化印度尼西亚语是基于字面的廖内马来语，而不是来自马六甲。
and actually Dutch Govt teach dutch language, but only for elites…..its not for commoner/average natives Indonesian back then…..
karena bahasa Belanda hanya diajarkan pada kalangan terbatas. biasanya para keluarga bangsawan dan para pejabat dan pegawai pribumi tingkatan tertentu. sementara untuk rakyat kebanyakan, pemerintah Hindia Belanda mengutamakan penggunaan bahasa Melayu pasar dan Melayu tinggi asal Riau.
The Philippines also was a colony of Spain for centuries, but the language has been completely lost in the archipelago, except for Spanish loanwords that entered the vocabulary of many Filipino languages.
Indonesia has many language but they also can speak 3 language (100%).. 1.Indonesian. 2. regional language 3. mother tongue (Javanese, Khek, Sundanese, Hokkien, etc.) depending on where they were born, they can automatically speak 3 languages
印度尼西亚有多种语言，但他们也会说3种语言（100%）。 1.印度尼西亚语。 2. 地方语言 3. 母语（爪哇语、喀克语、巽他语、闽南语等） 根据出生地点，他们可以自动说 3 种语言
My grandmother lived in a Dutch area of Jakarta. Her father was Dutch and Mother was a native of Java. Eventually her family moved to Europe, then the US. Watching yout video filled in lots of my knowledge gaps about their history. Thanks for this educational content.
As indonesian we dont speak dutch but they play a bit roles on the cultural impact. Like you can see the architectural sides in bandung, or kota tua. Also some cuisines were inspired by the dutch and sometimes we ate the same breakfast as dutch too
seandainya Belanda menasionalkan bahasa belanda diseluruh hindia belanda, maka itu juga keren. tapi karena belanda terlalu rasis sehingga hal itu tidak terjadi di Indonesia. klaster Indonesia terlihat rendah dimata Belanda, tapi orang Indonesia sangat bangga menjadi orang Indonesia
Not only do the dutch not spread their language. The locals that can, doesn’t want to teach them to their children after the independence. My grandfather can speak Japanese and Dutch but not once did he speak with that language with me or my father. He told me that he doesn’t want to use them and prefer to use Indonesian or Javanese. Even when I speak with him with Japanese, he would answer in bahasa
As someone who studied Indonesian history – this was very good. You should be proud of how you’ve put this together.
作为一个研究印度尼西亚历史的人 – 这非常好。您应该为如何将这些组合在一起感到自豪。
What also needs to be recognised is how naturally most Dutch learn languages compared to other European. I remember how my uncle who spent several years in Indonesia after WW2 in the Dutch army loved using Malay.
You should also mention that
When the Japanese arrived they also had an anti Dutch policy, which erased most of the Dutch heritage.
After Indonesia gained independence, our first president Soekarno also started an anti-Dutch policy which wiped out the remaining of Dutch spoken people and most of them ran to Netherland along with native Indonesians who spoke, or had support for Dutch. So Soekarno action contributed to this.
I also remember that my father told me that dutch local cemetery and landmark on my city was destroyed as rage to dutch and spirit of Independence came, it’s happen on my grandfather times.
This multiple action led to the extinction of dutch language, dutch spoken people, and dutch culture in Indonesia
Malaysia is the origin of the Malay language while Indonesia adopts Malay language to incorporate as Bahasa Indonesia. Presently in Malaysia , we could not get away from English as this language is too important for us many of of daily words are from English derivatives. Our library of English loan words are huge in Bahasa Malaysia. Meanwhile in Indonesia they still have some foreign loan words but it is already assimilated into Bahasa Indonesia as part of their language. The Bahasa Indonesia influence is very well set as a solid foundation since the beginning of Indonesian independence.
Im Indonesian, my grandfather and grandmother from my father side speak Dutch fluently. They’re from Manado and lived during Dutch colonial time. I think there’s many people from Manado during that time that speak Dutch.
Fun fact : Orang Indonesia pada umumnya menguasai 2 bahasa sekaligus, yaitu bahasa kebangsaan(Indonesia) dan bahasa suku nya, Bisa itu Bahasa Jawa, batak, sunda, madura dll.
since Indonesian consist of many culture and languages, at least Indonesian (not all especially latest generation) speak their mother tongue and Bahasa Indonesia. they can switch easily from java language to bahasa, Bugis to bahasa, even Hakka to bahasa, etc. I even met native papuan people from the far most eastern part of indonesia – who i thought don’t speak bahasa indonesia- actually speak bahasa Indonesia too. so I think speaking bahasa indonesia is not just an administrative matters, more of that it is a pledge for being an Indonesian.
由于印度尼西亚语由多种文化和语言组成，至少印度尼西亚语（不是所有特别是最新一代）说他们的母语和印度尼西亚语。他们可以轻松地从java语言切换到印尼语，从布吉斯语切换到印尼语，甚至从客家语切换到印尼语，等等。我什至遇到了来自印度尼西亚最东部地区的巴布亚人 – 我以为他们不会说印尼语 – 实际上会说印尼语也。所以我认为说印尼语不仅仅是一个行政事务，更多的是作为一个印尼人的承诺。
My late grandfather (from my mother’s side) was born from a royal family in West Java and he spoke fluent Dutch and English (also German and Japanese) because he had privilege to attend Dutch school. On the other hand, my grandmother was a commoner and didn’t know Dutch.
watching this tears me up, we are a big nation with sooo many differences, tribes, languange, land apart by sea, we don’t even look the same to one another, but for one reason we became a nation. Thank you Dutch because of your evil colonization, we become one and we hated you so much for it we don’t even want to speak your languange. I am a proud grand child of my great grancfather who fought the dutch and was in prison for several years.
Not that long ago, Dutch was the 4‘ or 5‘ most widely spoken language in the world.
From Indonesia, South Africa, Suriname in South America, of course Netherlands and Belgium and by the hundreds of thousands immigrants in Canada, Australia, New Zeeland. So you could better watch what you were saying if speaking about someone in close vicinity on your touristic travels.